POLITYKA KRAJÓW ŁACIŃSKIEJ AMERYKI І USA W PRZEBUDOWIE SYSTEMU STOSUNKÓW NA ŚWIATOWYCH I REGIONALNYCH POZIOMACH
UDC 32.001. (075.8)
Doctor of Political Science,
Taras Shechenko Kyiv National University (Ukraine, Kyiv),
University «Ukraine» (Ukraine, Kyiv),
Artykuł analizuje, jak dokładnie ludzie w Łacińskiej Ameryce działają w walce o przemianę sformowanego finansowy i ecinimical system na światowych i regionalnych poziomach. Najbardziej ekonomicznie rozwinięte kraje w regionie. Bez zmniejszania doniosłości nie zaprzeczania narodowych korzeni, pochodzenie tych kryzysów nie może być zignorowane czy zbagatelizował fakt, że rozwój Łacińskiej Ameryki w poprzednich dziesięcioleciach zaważył na głębokim vklyuchennost regionie w procesach globalnej integracji z jego aberracjami i nietrwałością, wszystko więcej i więcej z oczywistą niezdolnością międzynarodowej instytucji, żeby adekwatnie sprawił się i faktyczno odpowiada przemiana w państwo światowy gospodarka i finanse.
Kluczowe słowa: światowy ekonomiczny kryzys, nowa ekonomiczna, Łacińska Ameryka, Łacińska finansowa architektura Americas, integracja, regionalna waluta.
COUNTERACTION OF COUNTRIES OF LATIN AMERICA TO POLITICS OF THE USA IN ALTERATION OF THE SYSTEM ON WORLD AND REGIONAL LEVELS
Doctor of Political Science,
Taras Shechenko Kyiv National University (Ukraine, Kyiv),
University «Ukraine» (Ukraine, Kyiv),
The article analyzes as exactly the people in Latin America operate in a fight for alteration of the formed financial and ecinimical system on world and regional levels. The most economically developed countries in the region. Without belittling the importance of not denying the «national roots,» the origin of these crises can not be ignored or underestimated the fact that the development of Latin America in previous decades influenced deep vklyuchennost region in the processes of global integration with its «distortions» and instability, with increasingly the apparent inability of international institutions to adequately manage and effectively respond to changes in the state of world economy and finance.
Keywords: world economic crisis, new economic світопорядок, Latin America, Latin America’s financial architecture, integration, regional currency.
The current crisis in the world economy has prompted the international community to seek new development model paradigm, which would correspond to today's realities on the location of forces in the international arena. The movement that unfolded, with the new economic world order is taking an active part many Latin and South America in particular. Not expecting significant movement in this matter in the near future, they vigorously set about constructing their own „financial and economic architecture”, hoping thus to restore its economic growth, to get rid of excessive external financial dependence and possibly protect themselves from external influences and failures in the functioning of the global economy.
For a long time Latin America was on the periphery of world processes. Its called «backyard» USA, Washington did not hesitate to intervene in the internal affairs of neighboring countries, according to the Monroe Doctrine were part of the area of interest. Yes, they were formally sovereign states, but finally free from outside influence they could not. The current financial crisis has shown the need for change in the economic world order, the current Ambassador of the Second World War financial system, in which the key role played by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank (WB). For decades, developing countries have not committed serious impact on the global economy, but rather served as an object of economic expansion, and the dollar dominated international payments [1, p. 19].
Countries leading the continent in many areas of the world economy. Brazilian firm Vale ranks first among exporters of iron ore, Chilean Codelco is the largest company in the world specializing in the production of copper ore and Mexican Cemex came in third among the cement manufacturers. In the oil and gas industry for the future and Latin America. Brazilian Petrobras and Venezuelan PDSVA steadily gaining obortiv, aided by huge deposits of hydrocarbons in these countries. Bolivia has gas reserves and reserves of rare metals - tantalite, ametryn, tin, zinc, tungsten. According to Fortune Magazine for 2012, 126 of the 500 largest global companies located in Latin America (in 2005 they were here 47) [2, p. 11].
Quite successful social policy and Latin American countries. The researchers note that over the past ten years the number of poor people in the region decreased by 20%. Only one of Brazil for this time more than 50 million people were to belong to the middle class. Experts say that in Latin America find effective mechanisms to combat the crisis, the United States and the EU. For example, local multinationals against the logic of neoliberalism began to take on the responsibility for strategic decisions to work for the public good, not a small group of directors, investors and managers.
Specific examples - Mexican company Bimbo, which refused to fire employees even during the crisis and has introduced various incentives for strengthening their loyalty. Brazilian cosmetics company Natura Cosmeticos has a network of direct sales, which are more than a million consultants (mostly women) throughout South America. Ethical and environmental standards - the main principle of Natura. For similar founders went through a chain of restaurants in Peru Astrid & Gaston. Presenting the «new Peruvian cuisine», the company expanded its presence outside the continent - restaurants are in Mexico, Panama and even in Madrid. Thus Astrid & Gaston supports local farmers, using only traditional ingredients and invests in social youth programs. The company is also involved in the popularization of Andean cuisine, describing the tradition of ancient Peruvian culture. Peru -batkivschyna potatoes grown here 10 thousand. Varieties of plants [3, p. 39].
Latin American banks carry out assistance programs to poor or open service, which became available to the poor segments of the population, such as Bolsa Familia, Fome Zero in Brazil and Oportunidades in Mexico. Brazilian Banco Itau-Unibanco launched a number of educational projects, including program Raizes e Asas (Roots and Wings), which aims to encourage gifted students (each bank is obliged to allocate 12 thousand. Dollars). In Mexico, the company Enova has created a «network of training and education» by building a small 42 training centers for low-income communities.
Fernando Henrique Cardoso, who started economic and social reform in Brazil, Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff brought the country into leadership positions. Experts of the Council on Foreign Relations, which is considered one of the most influential think tanks in the US in July 2011 predicted that Brazil within five years will be the fifth economy in the world and receive a permanent seat on the UN Security Council. Brazil exports more than 50 thousand. Barrels per day ethanol and biofuels is in this area the main competitor of the US. Actively developing Sino-Brazilian relations. However, 80% of Brazilian exports to China account for basic commodities and raw materials (soybean oil, iron ore), and 90% of imports from China accounted for manufactured goods. China is also a major investor in Brazil (mining and oil sector, transport, energy) [4, p. 21].
In 2014, Brazil hosted the World Cup, and in 2016-meters - the Olympic Games, which again implies significant investments in infrastructure, security and health. Brazilian officials working on the project Educacao para Todos ( «Education for all»), which aims to increase budgetary spending on education to 7% of GDP by 2015 (currently, the figure is 5.2%. In the US it is 5.5 %, Russia - 4.8%, and by 2015 it we promise to reduce to 3.8%). Brazil participates in the block BRICS and IBSA (India -brazyliya - South Africa) and using «soft power» in relations with Portuguese-speaking countries of the world. There is a Brazilian presence in Africa - in Mozambique, Senegal, Mali and Ghana this Latin American country coordinating food security program.
On the continent implemented the project, «South-South» and «Tropikalizmo» which put emphasis on a common identity. Internationally active and Argentina, which is included in the block VISTA (Vietnam, Indonesia, South Africa, Turkey, Argentina). As BRICS, the acronym was proposed by Western analysts that the combined state of the new generation that can ensure political stability, high growth and favorable conditions for expanding trade. However, Argentina is going through hard times. The credit policy led to lower wages and tax increases, which negatively affected the social situation in the country.
In 2009 at the Summit of the Americas in Trinidad and Tobago, Chavez gave Barack Obama the work of Eduardo Galeano «open veins of Latin America.» Described in her event, it seems, forever in the past, crews death prepared by the CIA, and the organization of drug trafficking from the Andean coca triangle loans the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, destroying the traditional foundations and the countries involve in debt system rudiments neoimperialistychnoyi policies such as the war Argentina and Britain in 1982 for the Malvinas (Falkland) Islands and constant coups military elite. In recent years, Latin America has changed. In result of the global crisis on the continent social movements intensified regional integration processes.
Latin American trade unions, landless peasants of Brazil, Argentina and Chile miners, Indians of Bolivia and Ecuador, Mexico neosapatysty joined forces in the fight for their interests. Former working metallurgist and trade union activist, Lula became president of Brazil, another trade union leader and ethnic Indian Evo Morales led Bolivia, in Nicaragua the Sandinistas returned to power. Since 2001, in Latin America have been held worldwide social forums and the continent gradually became the center of anti-globalization movement [5, p. 9].
Bolivarian Alliance for the peoples of Our America (Spanish. Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra America, reduced ALBA) is more ideological bloc was created in 2004. Purpose - to intensify cooperation and trade relations. The structure of the ALBA includes eight countries: Bolivia, Venezuela, Cuba, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Dominica, Antigua and Barbuda, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Among the invited are members of the alliance and the state from other regions, such as Syria and Iran.
In April 2009 at the summit of the Bolivarian Alliance member was made conditional on the introduction of currency for settlements called «sucre». As virtual means of payment they exist on 1 January 2010. In the same year was made the first transaction. It was planned to make a real sucre currency not only for alliance members, but also for other countries in the region, turn to alternative US dollar. In this regard, we note a few facts. In June 2009, after Honduran President Manuel Zelaya decided to join the alliance, the military organized a coup country. And in October 2010 during riots in Quito there was the attempted re-elected for a second term President of Ecuador Rafael Correa, considered the author of the idea of a single bank and the total for the countries of ALBA monetary system (as shown by the investigation, police officers involved in the conspiracy, trained in special centers in the US) [6, p. 5].
In the summer of 2012 was removed from power President of Paraguay, Fernando Lugo, who was stavlenykom Left. «Remove him impeachment was easy - marked geopolitical Argentine Carlos Pereira-Mele, -adzhe supported this decision in Washington. Besides Paraguay very strong legal tradition. Pponad forty years in the country had a dictator Alfredo Stroessner, who did not hide their sympathy for the German Nazis. Now Paraguayan oligarchy, most probably exclude the country, which is considered the heart of South America, with the integration process on the continent. « Paraguay can become a mainstay of the US in the region, especially in view of the fact that there is a large American base «Maryskal Estyharrybya.» For input power in Bolivia, ALBA meaning geostrategic environment in the spirit of «Operation Anaconda ring.» Indeed, in neighboring Peru and the United States have military bases, and in Chile there is a powerful network oligarchs associated with Washington.
However, despite all the obstacles that create US states within the bloc ALBA, have succeeded. Among the major joint projects should be noted general bank, dealing with finance, education, transport infrastructure, institutions ALBA Cultural Foundation and the University of Tourism. ALBA Countries distributed function sectoral areas, and large national projects linked with the mechanisms of integration and the creation of conditions that would guarantee can not be controlled by multinational corporations. For example, Cuba campaign in charge of general education, energy security, the Latin American School of Medicine, including the Community and Preventive Medicine, the construction of settlements and telecommunications.
If the leaders of the ALBA considered Cuba and Venezuela, the project Mersosur (App. Mercado Comun del Sur, South American common market) the key role played by Argentina and Brazil. These state in 1985 signed a program of economic integration and cooperation, which laid the foundations for regional trade association. Includes Venezuela, Uruguay and Paraguay (membership terminated last June 2012 to April 2013). Currently Mersosur is a huge space from Tierra del Fuego to the Caribbean area of 12.8 million square meters. km with a population of 275 million people. The potential association is the fact that its territory is two thirds of the world's fresh water and made 20% of world oil production [7, p. 9].
C 2004 Mersosur and the Andean Community (originally included Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Venezuela in the organization from 1973 to 2011) led talks on a new union Unasur (Union de Naciones Suramericanas, Union of South American Nations). The organization was founded December 9, 2004 at the summit of 12 Latin American countries in the Peruvian city of Cusco. The ideas embodied in the Andean group - to develop a common economic policy coordination and harmonization of projects implemented legislation - spread to the whole of South America.
In May 2012 the III Energy glad Unasur in Caracas signed an agreement that guaranteed the protection of regional resources and included integration in the energy sector. Adopted a plan to build 30 infrastructure projects, which included a building in South America three corridors connecting the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
Regarding fiscal policy, countries belonging to Unasur, agreed on the introduction of a common currency Sucre (Bolivarian Alliance). This example demonstrates the interdependence considered integration projects. Union of South American Nations is trying to make and a common foreign policy: the state Unasur jointly defend the interests of one of its members. Thus, for example, in the case of Argentina, which has a dispute with Britain over the sovereignty of the Malvinas Islands. Chile, Venezuela, Bolivia and other countries associations in 2012 contributed to the UN Committee on decolonization question of «returning the islands of Buenos Aires.» Ecuador zaruchavsya Unasur support in the case of Julian Assange.
Unasur leaders seek to create mechanisms and collective defense. At the extraordinary summit of the organization, sostoyalys in Brazil in December 2008, established the South American Defense Council - an advisory and coordinating body whose objective is to analyze and eliminate possible threats in the region. In Latin America remain unresolved territorial issues. This vast resources are concentrated: local rainforests, for example, characterized the world's biodiversity. In addition, in 2025 the region will produce 40% of food in the world, and given the dire predictions about access to food and water, common defense policy for Latin American countries is a vital issue [8, p. 11].
Another integration project - CELAC (Community of Latin America and the Caribbean). This regional political and economic organization was founded April 17, 2007 during the first meeting on the integration of the energy chapters of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, Guyana, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Chile and Ecuador on the Venezuelan island of Margarita. CELAC, certainly a counterweight to Washington the project Organization of American States. One of the main goals is to prevent Union regional policy of the United States. It is no coincidence the late Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez was for community leaders symbolic figure.
On the other hand, unlike in ALBA CELAC deliberately avoiding indoctrination, trying to develop a consolidated position on most issues. Speaking in Caracas in December 2011, the President of Uruguay Pepe Mujica urged his colleagues to abandon dogmatism. «You can observe any views - he said - right, left, centrist whom you want. The Community syndicalists are Argentine, Brazilian broad federalization supporters and ideologues of socialism of the XXI century. By CELAC pryyednalasya even Mexico, which has always been clear of integration processes in Latin America, as a member of NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement). This indicates the umbrella nature of the organization, but it is believed that at the moment the most powerful tool for integration in the region [9, p. 14].
Another organization - BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China). The active position is occupied by PPIM countries (South Africa, Pakistan, Indonesia, Mexico), quite independent role played by oil exporters (active player - Venezuela) that have accumulated considerable financial reserves. Shifted traditional role of creditors and debtors, the formation of new major financial markets and regulation which went beyond the separately taken states. The world, in fact, went to the currency system, along with the US dollar (which has lost its former stability and credibility as a reserve currency and a universal means of payment) to the international market was the euro. All these changes are obvious, and heightened financial instability, failures in the banking system, macroeconomic turbulence and other evidence of erosion that began the current world monetary system.
The theme of the formation of a new global financial architecture was repeatedly raised. Recurrent financial and economic failures of individual countries and regions were forced again and again to its discussion. Thus, for example, after the crisis in Mexico (1994-1995 g.), Stirred heated debate when they found significant differences in the positions of their members. So it was after the crisis in Argentina (1995), Brazil (1998 - 1999) and again in Argentina (2001-2002.) - The most economically developed countries in the region. Without belittling the importance of not denying the «national roots,» the origin of these crises can not be ignored or underestimated the fact that the development of Latin America in previous decades influenced deep vklyuchennost region in the processes of global integration with its «distortions» and instability, with increasingly the apparent inability of international institutions to adequately manage and effectively respond to changes in the state of world economy and finance.
1. SELA aboga por nueva arquitectura financiera. - Www.sela.org, 25/6/2012.
2. IMF. World Economic Outlook: Sustaining the Recovery. 35 October 2014. p.
3. Brasil in Argentina «eliminan» al dolar. - Www.cnnexpansion.com, 8 de septiembre 2012.
4. Adios al Dolar: Brasil in Argentina haran transacciones en moneda nacional. - Www.aporrea.org, 30.VI.2013.
5. El comercio entre Argentina in Brasil con moneda local suma 122 millones de dolares. - Agenda EFE, www.periodistadigital.com, 17 de mayo 2009; www.andmundo.com, 18.V.2012.
6. UNASUR - Unión de Naciones Suramericanas. - http://unasursg.org/
7. CEPAL. Panorama de la inserción internacional de América Latina y el Caribe. 2011-2012, p. 9.
8. Sebastián Piñera. Las soluciones a los problemas en Latinoamérica estan en la unión. - http://www.celac.gob.ve./
9. CEPAL. Panorama de la inserción internacional de América Latina y el Caribe. 2011-2012, p. 14.